3.Theoretical background of I.T. concepts
- 100% privacy
policy of information system and its large capacity is achieved by using cloud software/web development tool. This is password protected and has been backed up by two parallel URL domains. These two domains have different administrative accessibility
with different passwords. So it will be impossible to hack personal information or attempt unauthorized access.
- Virtual nature of organization is achieved by mainly providing E-health services.
- A fast & convenient route of linking stakeholders (service providers & service receivers) in one interphase is achieved by maintaining an online information system.
3.1 About Cloud Computing
The term cloud computing first came about in 1960 and was used to express the notion that computing resources could someday be grouped together as a public utility. Today however,
the term is used to describe a somewhat limited range of services, all of which adhere to some form of commonalities. When a company refers to ‘the cloud ‘or ‘a cloud’, they are generally referring to one of a number of technologies
that are widely being used to replace the traditional server-infrastructure model. The cloud normally consists of a large number of servers; all linked to each other in such a way that they may be used by a number of parties, at the same time and are capable
of reallocating resources to respond to demand at any given time. A classic application of this technology is a stock market monitoring service. Suppose we ran a service that monitors the New York Stock Exchange, the service would only ever be active during
the hours that the exchange was trading, and where we to plot a graph of the server usage of such a service, it would not appear dissimilar to the parapets of an ancient castle. The application here is obvious, rather than paying for hundreds of servers to
be running around the clock, the service could instead scale its infrastructure to cope with the load during peak periods, taking what Amazon.com refers
to as ‘server instances’ offline whilst they’re not needed.
2.3.2 The Key Players
The theory behind cloud computing is at best subjective. There is no official standardized definition, which allows for a fair degree of ambiguity. There are however a number of large, incumbent suppliers in this relatively new market.
Perhaps the best known supplier of cloud computing solutions is Amazon, better known for its online book (etc.) store. The Amazon Web Services (AWS)
are, arguably, some of the best, and cheapest, in the industry. If it’s net hosting that you’re in need of however, you’d be well advised to look into Microsoft’s offering and
even then we’re barely scratching the surface. Other key players include IBM, Rack Space and even smaller hosts such as Media
Temple (MT), offer similar, if not exactly comparable, solutions.
3.3 What’s so
great about the cloud?
The main advantage to the cloud is its flexibility. The ability to expand an applications capacity to meet demand, without the need to purchase new hardware,
it’s every server technician’s dream come true. There are however, other advantages. For applications that require large amounts of storage, the cloud model allows large quantities of data to be pushed to servers that are built to handle those
large volumes of data, or if an application must process images or an infinite stream of data, servers that are ideally suited to that task can be assigned. The cloud allows for companies to not only scale the number, but also the type, of server that they
use at any time. It’s here that the majority of savings are made when switching to the cloud.
3.4 Getting started with the cloud
Now we’ve considered what goes into the cloud and where it is a good idea. Let’s consider how we can best make a start using a cloud hosting service. The first task is to choose a cloud hosting provider,
the de-facto standard seems to be the Amazon offering, AWS, which has been making waves across the web, from academic institutions to industry leading blogs and applications. Once we’ve settled on a service provider we need to look at just what we do
and don’t want to be hosted there. Whilst the cloud is adaptable to almost any kind of service it does provide an additional level of complexity in some circumstances. Your personal blog, unless you get over half a million visitors a month, probably
won’t benefit much from being moved to the cloud. A new service you’re developing to handle payments for a fortune 500 or an app for checking on car parking spaces in your local city however, are probably quite well suited to the ability of the
cloud to quickly expand and shrink in line with demand. If you’re thinking of making the jump to the cloud, you’d do well to look into AWS as well as a few of its competitors. Once you’ve decided you’re going to make the switch it is
strongly recommend gradually moving parts of a service over piece by piece, in order to minimize the effects of any problems that occur.
4.Theoretical background of
The ancient Indian scripture rig Veda states;
may you all have a common purpose may your hearts be in unison may you all be the same mind so that you can do work, efficiently well. The concept of co-operation is old as human society. It is the basis of domestic and social life. Science may points out
the way to survival and happiness of all mankind through love and co-operation. Co-operation is derived from the Latin word “co-operari”, ‘co’ means “with” and ‘operari’ means “to work”. Hence co-operation
means working together with others for a common purpose. Aristotle, a philosopher of ancient Greece, recognized the social nature of man when he said, “man is a social animal”. Man cannot lead a happy and contented life if he lives in isolation.
Therefore, there is a great need for co-operation, which can be considered as the basic principle underlying human life. The word co- operation literally means working together or acts together.
Mclegan committee defines co-operation as “the theory of co-operation is very briefly, the isolated and powerless man can, by association with others and by moral development and mutual support obtain, in his own degree, the material advantage
available to wealthy or powerful persons and whereby develop himself to the fullest extent of his natural abilities. By the union of forces, material advancement is secured and by united action self- reliance is fostered and it is from the inter-action of
the influences that it is hoped to attain the effective realization of the higher and more prosperous standard of life which has been characterized as “better business”, “better farming” and “better living”. “Co-operative
societies can help the transformation from capitalism to socialism and finally to communism”. – Lenin. The basic idea behind co-operation is “self-help and mutual help” and “mutual aid” and “each for all and all for
The modern concept of co-operation is altogether different from the primitive one. “it denotes a special method of doing business” - different viewpoints of
co-operation according to the sociologists co-operative movement is an instrument for establishing social harmony through the removal of class struggle. Economists are of the opinion that co-operative is a means of countering the exploitation of weaker sections
by conferring on them a better economic status. In a legal sense, co-operation signifies special privileges and concessions conferred by law on its members. According to the socialist co-operative school, “co-operation is a weapon for the development
of socialist thought and the realization of firms or households for business purpose and economic institution through which economic activity is conducted in the pursuit of economic objectives”
4.2 Features of co-operatives
1. It is an association of persons: a co-operative society comes into existence when a group of individuals
join hand and form an association. 2. It is an enterprise or undertaking: co-operation lays stress on ethical standard and it is basically an enterprise. It is run by members themselves at their own cost and risk. 3. It is a voluntary association: an individual
is free to join the society and resign from his membership of the society at his will and discretion. 4. It has service objectives: the main object of co-operative society is to serve its members rather than to earn profits. 5. It has democratic management:
the co-operative society follows the cardinal principle of democracy i.e. One man one vote. The affairs are handled by the board of directors. The capital does not get any special treatment over human being in co-operation. 6. It is based on proportionality
or equity: no discrimination among members is made on the grounds of religious faith, political ideology, and educational qualifications and so on. 7. It is with the norms of social justice: there is no class division among capitalists and working class in
co-operation. 8. It is a socio-economic movement: a part of socio-economic movement the co-operative movement is viewed as a constituent part of the overall socio- economic movement of the country. 9. Proportionality or equality has a unique basis: the surplus
is distributed not according to share taken but according to the proportion of business operation a member has effected with the society. 10. It is a universal movement: found in all countries of the world. 11. It is at the service of both the members and
the community: every society stands for the economic upliftment of the members and the social, cultural and economic betterment of the local community.
4.3 Objectives of co-operation
Self-help made effective by organization is called Co-operative Society. The main objectives of co-operatives of co-operatives are: 1. Elimination of Middlemen. The First and foremost objective
of co-operative society is to remove the middlemen in different fields, who take away the gains that should have gone to the real beneficiaries. 2. Raising economic status of the poor. The most basic aim of a co-operative society is to raise the standard of
living of the poor. 3. Removal of the ills of capitalism. The basic cause of the ills of capitalism is the profit motive. This leads to exploitation, class struggle, economic inequality and unfair competition. These evils adversely affected the interest of
workers and gave birth to co-operative movement. Therefore the aim of co- operation is to restrict the amount of profit and provide better service to its members. 4. Raising moral standards of its members. Co-operative movement wishes to direct human life
towards goodness by raising their moral standard. 5. Increasing the prosperity of the whole community. . A co-operative society aims at bringing about the welfare of not a particular individual but of the whole community. 6. Abolition of Social Inequalities.
The feeling of ‘high’ or ‘low’ among members of the community act as a cause of social tensions, the removal of which is the goal of the co-operative movement. 7. Political and religious neutrality. As far as possible, a co-operative
remains aloof from political parties and religious groups. 8. Development of corporate life. A co-operative aims at providing a corporate life to the weaker sections of the community.
4.4 Benefits of co-operation
The benefits of co-operation are studied under four broad categories.
1. Economic benefits 2. Social and political benefits 3. Educational benefits
4. Ethical benefits.
The following are the economic benefits derived out of a co-operative institution. I. The substitution of profit incentive in business by that of service to the community. II. A more equitable distribution
of wealth. III. A breaks up of monopolistic tendencies. . IV. Increase in purchasing power and real wages to individuals. V. Reduction in cost of distribution system by elimination of unnecessary middlemen. VI. The more accurate correlation of demand and supply.
VII. Stabilization of employment. VIII. General improvement in employer, employee relationships. IX. Cheap marketing and processing of farm products at reasonable prices.
social benefits are as follows: I. To provide a unique education in democracy, responsibility and toleration. II. To train for political power. III. To evolve an industrial relationship among all. IV. To preserve a strong friendly or family spirit. V. To secure
rational construction and unifying approaches to social and economic problems. VI. To prevent underemployment and unemployment. VII. To secure moral as well as physical satisfaction of pure quality, correct weight and fair dealings. VIII. To prevent exploitation
of man by man.
Following are the important educational objectives or benefits of cooperation. I. The individuals lean by experience gained in practical work of co-operation. II. Co-operation
also sponsors education. There are many co-operative schools and colleges formed to provide affordable education and also employment to educated unemployed youths. III. To train the people to take initiatives in organizing IV. To create experts.
Following are the important ethical and moral benefits of cooperation I. The policy of honesty is a necessity in co-operation. II. Cooperation returns money value for honesty and other virtues.
III. The motto of co-operation is “each for all and all for each” IV. Co-operation aims at the production of fine human beings.
4.5 Seven co-operative principles
Cooperatives around the world generally operate according to the same core principles and values, adopted
by the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) in 1995. But in this CJMS business model these basic principles are strategically modified for the purpose of smooth flow of management process.
Principle 1: Voluntary and Open Membership
Principle 2: Democratic Member Control
Principle 3: Member's Economic Participation
Principle 4: Autonomy and Independence
Principle 5: Education, Training, and Information
Principle 6: Co-operation among Co-operatives
Principle 7: Concern for Community
CO-OPEURATIVE ALLIANCE (ICA) PRINCIPLES
International Co-operative Alliance is an international body set up for the promotion of co-operative ideas and spreading the principles
of co-operation around the world. Due to enormous changes taking place in Economic, Social and Political fronts, the International Co- operative Alliance (ICA) appointed a sub-committee in 1934 to take a fresh look at the co- operative principles. They evaluated
the principles enunciated by Roach Dale, its relevance and observance in the present time and finally submitted its report in 1937. Based on the sub- committee report the ICA instead of formulating principles, they simply classified the Roach Dale Principles
in to two- Essential and Non Essential in 1937. They are: 1. Open Membership 2. Democratic Control 3. Limited Interest on Share Capital Essential Principles 4. Patronage Dividend 5. Religious and Political Neutrality 6. Cash Trading 7. Promotion of Education
Non Essential Principles 8. Selling Pure and Unadulterated goods 3.KARVE COMMITTEE ON CO-OPERATIVE PRINCIPLE. Again in 1960 due to the dynamic nature of the world, ICA appointed a commission in 1964. Five nations namely UK, USA, USSR, Germany and India were
represented in the commission. Prof. D.G. Karve from India was the Chairman of the Commission and therefore, the Commission is popularly known as Karve Commission on Co-operative principles. The commission recommended the following principles in its report
submitted in 1966. 1. Open and Voluntary Membership:-Membership of a Co-operative Society is open to all those who wish to join it. There is no discrimination on the grounds of caste, creed, religion, race, sex or politics. The only point to be remembered
while giving membership is that his or her profession is not opposed to that of a co-operative society. For example a money lender is not admitted as a member of primary co- operative credit society. 2. Democratic Management:-The management of a Co-operative
society should be done democratically. The ultimate responsibility of managing the entire society is vested with the School of Distance Education Co-Operative Theory & Practice Page 15 General Body. The main points to be taken care of in a democratic management
are:- a) Each member has only one vote. b) Majority rules in all matters. c) Committee of management should always have the authority of members before they take any important step. According to the principle of democratic control, the Board of Management
is an elected body, which controls the day to day affairs. 3. Limited Interest on Share Capital. As per the Co-operative Societi1es Act, 1969, interest on capital is restricted. For the purpose of collecting necessary amount of funds, the society is bound
to pay interest. Whatever interest is paid, it should be on a limited scale. 4. Equitable Distribution of Surplus. Earning of profits is not the basic objective of a co- operative society. But this does not imply that co-operatives are run on no profit no
loss basis, or they are managed with losses. The surplus of the society is disposed of as follows.. a. Provision is made for the development of the society. b. Provision is made for Common Services. c. Some of the surplus is distributed among the members on
equitable basis. 5. Co-operative Education. The progress of the society depends to a greatest extent on how best its members can takes an active part in its affairs, which is possible only when the members are educated. Co-operative education includes: a.
Education to members b. Education to office bearers; and c. Education of prospective members. 6. Co-operation among Co-operatives In order to best serve the interest of members all co-operative organizations should actively co-operate in every practical way
with other co-operatives at Local, National and International levels. Such type of co-operation is necessary to acquire greater strength to face adverse conditions. 4.
PRINCIPLES BY ICA IN 1995.
The ICA Tokyo Congress held in 1992, initiated steps to review the current ICA Co- operative Principles of 1966 and make possible changes to prevent
the erosion in values of co- operation. Based on the direction given to Dr. Ivan Mac Pherson (Canada), he reviewed the principles and submitted a report in 1994 which was approved by ICA General Assembly in Manchester in September 1995. This report contains
seven principles:- The co-operative principles are guidelines by which co-operatives put their values into practice. 1. Voluntary and Open Membership Co-operatives are voluntary organisations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept
the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination. School of Distance Education Co-Operative Theory & Practice Page 16 2. Democratic Member Control Co-operatives are democratic organisations controlled
by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights (one member, one vote)
and co-operatives at other levels are also organised in a democratic manner. 3. Member Economic Participation Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co- operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common
property of the co-operative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative, possibly by setting
up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; and supporting other activities approved by the membership. 4. Autonomy and Independence Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help
organisations controlled by their members. If they enter into agreements with other organisations, including governments, or raise capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their co-operative
autonomy. 5. Education, Training and Information Co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co- operatives. They inform the
general public - particularly young people and opinion leaders - about the nature and benefits of co-operation. 6. Co-operation among Co-operatives Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together
through local, national, regional and international structures. 7. Concern for Community Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members. To conclude, that the above said principles are the
important qualities that make co- operative institutions effective, distinct and valuable. The Government should provide a conducive environment for the co-operatives in which they may combine in their working co- operative values, socio-economic objects and
competitive strength in the Globalized Era.
4.8 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CAPITALISM AND CO-OPERATION.
In spite of these common features existing between capitalism and co- operation, there are a lot of differences between them on the following points. 1. In capitalism capital has a pivotal role to play in the business whereas in co-operation, it has
a secondary role. 2. The capitalistic economy is dominated by profit motive whereas service is the motto of co- operatives. 3. In capitalism there is union of capital and in co-operatives there is union of persons. 4. Share capital determines the voting rights
in capitalism whereas in co-operation, one man has one vote irrespective of their capital contribution. 5. Capital owns men in a capitalistic economy while in a co-operative society, men own capital. 6. In capitalistic system business tends to concentrate
wealth in the hands of a few capitalist whereas in the co-operative system wealth is decentralized. 7. In capitalism there is cut throat competition whereas there is no such competition in 8. In capitalism the relationship is impersonal where as in co-operative
business there exists a personal relationship between members and organization. 9. The evolution of capitalism is towards creation of monopolies, while evolution of cooperation is towards decentralization. 10. Capitalism encourages materialism whereas co-operations
strive for development of cultural and spiritual values in individuals. 11. Capitalism maximizes the amount of profit or return of investment to shareholders. Co- operatives are formed for better economic service and improving the standard of living of its
4.9 CO-OPERATION V/S SOCIALISM INTRODUCTION:
Socialism is a system wherein all
means of production and distribution is owned and controlled by the state. It is a socio economic system in which material means of production are owned by public authority or the community and operates not for profit but for the services of the community
at large. Socialists are of different types and they are Marxism socialism or scientific socialism State socialism Guild socialism; and Evolutionary and revolutionary socialism The principles common to all socialist are substitution of collective ownership
for private property in all instruments of production which permit exploitation of labour and the substitution of a central authority controlling production in place of the present competitive environment. But they differ in the views held as to how property
should be held in common or as to how the distribution of services and goods should be carried out. In the words of KARL MARX “Society can be reformed only by the destruction of private property”. According to LENNIN “Mere growth of co-operation
is identical with socialism”. FEATURES OF SOCIALISM The principles on which the majority of the socialists agree on may be listed as follows. 1. State alone has the power to organize and conduct production. 2. Nationalization of all the means or instruments
of production ie., land, factories, mines, railways and their ownership to be transferred to the state. 3. Controlling Boards would be established in each industry and the state would pay wages fixed by such boards. 4. State would provide work for everyone.
5. The state itself would be capitalist, the landlord and the organizer of industry and thus interest and rent would disappear. 6. Remuneration for work would vary according to one’s ability and everybody is assured of an equal opportunity to rise in
life, irrespective of rank. 7. The state would undertake production and distribution and pay costs of production and annex profits as well. Profits arising out of production would be spent by the state on education, medical relief, recreation and entertainment
of the poor. 8. Private property in capital goods like residential house, furniture and fixtures and other consumer goods would be allowed. 9. Private ownership of means of production is prohibited. 10. Each individual is assured of fixed income. 11. The entire
surplus or profits belongs to the state. 12. There is no class difference or class struggle; and 13. Balanced Economic development.
4.10 MERITS OF SOCIALISM.
The following are the advantages of socialistic pattern of society. School of Distance Education Co-Operative Theory & Practice Page 21 1. As the State runs the entire operations, considerable
fund is accumulated with the State which can be used for amenities like education, medical facilities, free milk for children and for entertainments. 2. The productive resources are utilized in an effective manner. 3. Jobs neglected by people would be given
to machinery and they would be free to pursue higher aims in life. 4. As equality of opportunity is afforded to all to rise to higher positions in life, considerable uplift of uplift of the masses is brought under a socialistic state.
4.11 SIMILARITIES BETWEEN CO-OPERATION AND SOCIALISM.
On the basis of the features of socialism we find that socialism and co-operation
resemble each other in a variety of ways. They are: 1. Both aim at the abolition of class struggle, profit economy and poverty in the midst of plenty, which militate against the norms of a welfare state. 2. Both maintain economic equality and offer no opportunity
for the development of glaring inequalities of income and wealth. 3. In both the forms, actions are directed towards the elimination of competitive forces and their substitution by the principles of co-operation. 4. Both aims at the welfare of the community
and the promotion of social justice and progress. 5. Both oppose individualism and seek to replace it by collective ownership and collective action. 6. Both lay emphasis on distribution of wealth. 7. The aims of both are rendering of service rather than earning
profit. 8. Both the systems are based on moral foundation and believe in human brotherhood. 9. Both the systems have a common origin; and 10. Both try for eliminating the evil effects of competition.
4.12 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOCIALISM AND CO-OPERATION.
The differences between the two are as follows. Basis of difference Socialism Cooperation System Socialism
is a system of government which seeks to move towards its objectives by changing the prevalent economic order Co-operation is a system of thought which is compatible with all forms of economic and political systems. A better philosophy is enunciated within
the system itself to help the common man to gain strength Type of Remedy Socialism is a political remedy for economic evils and it is effective through the active involvement of the Government Co-operation is a non-political alternative to the economic problems
The state is supreme for it participates in and exercises The individual is supreme, he enjoys freedom of action. The School of Distance Education Co-Operative Theory & Practice Page 22 Supremacy control over production and distribution. The state interferes
in all matters and the freedom cannot be exercised members direct the activities of the organization. Capital Socialism is against the idea of the accumulation of capital by individuals The co- operatives do not discourage accumulation of capital by its members.
But in co- operation takes care to ensure that they are not controlled by it Role of the State Socialism operates under state domination, which is both the deciding authority and the directing agency. co-operatives seek to avoid state control Type of Property
Socialism is associated with State Ownership. All the means are owned collectively by the community Co-operation is characterized by, the co-existence of private and collective ownership. Politics Politics in socialism, finds a top place Co-operation is free
from politics or it is politically neutral Control Economy is controlled by the State Co-operative organizations are managed democratically Surplus In socialist economy the surplus goes to the state But in co-operatives it goes to the members on the basis
of patronage dividend Object The objective of socialist economy is to protect the welfare of the people Co-operation the basic objective is service to members In spite of the difference, co-operation, in its broader sense, constitute an integral part of socialism.
If co-operatives achieve the socialist objectives in bits, socialism extends its objectives to cover the whole country